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WATER SECURITY AS PART OF NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY: THREAT- IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIA  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Like oil or data, water is an integral part of the world’s economy. Although about 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is water-covered, the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water which is salt water. Freshwater, most of it is frozen in glaciers, accounts for the rest. That leaves less than 1 per cent of the world’s water available to support human and ecological processes. We withdraw 4.3 trillion cubic meters of freshwater every year from the earth’s water basins. ...Read more >

51 Pages
6.47 MB
CHINA’S CYBER-INFLUENCE OPERATIONS  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The digital era has transformed the way we communicate. Using social media like Facebook and Instagram, and social applications such as WhatsApp and Telegram, one can be in contact with friends and family, share pictures, videos, messages, posts and share our experiences. Social media has become an effective way of influencing human society and behavior, and shaping public opinion. By sharing a post, tweeting an idea, contributing a discussion in a forum and sharing a sentimental picture, ...Read more >

86 Pages
2.52 MB
CHINA’S NUCLEAR AND MISSILE CAPABILITIES: AN OVERVIEW  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Since China first conducted a nuclear weapon test in 1964, its nuclear doctrine has remained unchanged and is underpinned by two principles: a minimum deterrent doctrine and a No First Use (NFU) policy. China’s 2019 defence white paper states, “China is always committed to a nuclear policy of NFU of nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances, and not using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclearweapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones ...Read more >

82 Pages
5.35 MB
LIMITED WAR AND NUCLEAR DETERRENCE PART I AND II   By Major General PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

On 15 June 2020, in a brutal, savage skirmish,the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) used fists, rocks, rods, baton, spikes, knuckle-dusters, nail-studded clubs and wooden clubs wrapped in barbed wire at a post at Galwan on the Indian side of Line of Actual Control(LAC) in Ladakh sector at an altitude of 4,250 meters. India lost a Commanding Officer of an infantry battalion and 19 other ranks. China did not divulge its casualty figures. There is a famous saying that no two nuclear-powered ...Read more >

30 Pages
904.35 KB
DEFINING CHINA’S INTELLIGENTIZED WARFARE AND ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Marshal NV Ograkov, Chief of Staff of the Soviet Army in late 1970s-early 1980s gave out the theory of Military Technical Revolution (MTR). In the wake of overwhelming victory of coalition forces in Operation Desert Storm, net assessment specialists like Andrew Marshal came out with the term Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) which basically evolved from earlier term MTR used by Soviet Military ...Read more >

29 Pages
657.48 KB
ARMENIAN-AZERBAIJANI CONFLICT OVER NAGORNO-KARABAKH: GEOPOLITICAL IMPLICATIONS  By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Since the last days of the Soviet Union Armenia and Azerbaijan, the two states have been locked in an intractable conflict over the disputed region of NagornoKarabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh, is an autonomous province of the former Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, a self-declared country whose independence is not internationally recognised. Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding regions have seen periodic outbursts of violence in recent years, but the current war is the most ...Read more >

97 Pages
2.25 MB
CHINESE INTRANSIGENCE IN LADAKH: AN OVERVIEW  By Major General PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

China and India are heirs to the two oldest civilisations of the world. Both emerged in their present form after World War II. India became independent in 1947 and the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949. They share one of the world’s longest borders, about 3488 kms, across the Himalayas. Both are nuclear weapon states. China’s missiles can reach anywhere in the world. India’s latest Agni series missiles can reach Beijing comfortably. On border issues there have ...Read more >

12 Pages
3.47 MB
IS THE NAVAL BLOCKADE OF THE STRAITS OF MALACCA A REALISTIC OPTION FOR INDIA: AN ASSESSMENT  By Major General PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The Straits of Malacca is the shortest sea route between Persian Gulf suppliers of oil and key Asian markets. It links major economies such as Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea, etc. Being the 500 nautical mile funneled waterway, the Strait is only 1.5 nautical miles (2.8 km) wide at its narrowest point─ the Phillips Channel in the Singapore Strait. The Strait is not deep enough to accommodate some of the largest ships, mostly oil tankers, but it is significant as through the ...Read more >

9 Pages
577.54 KB
IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) CHANGING THE NATURE OF WAR?  By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The professional military body differentiates between an objective nature and a subjective character of war by drawing upon Clausewitz. Nature of war describes what war is and character of war describes how it is actually fought. Nature of war is violent, interactive between opposing wills and fundamentally political. War’s character is influenced by technology, law, ethics, culture, methods of social, political, and military organization and other factors that change across time and ...Read more >

9 Pages
99.19 KB
LOCUST INVASION IN INDIA  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

It has been a double whammy. As the nation is reeling under the effects of COVID-19 pandemic, India has to fight another menace: locust invasion. Massive swarms of desert locusts have devoured crops across seven states of western and central India including Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. The locust population might grow 400 times larger by end June 2020 and spread to new areas without action. It would be disrupting food supply, ...Read more >

31 Pages
2.06 MB
CYBER AND SPACE STRATEGY FOR INDIA   By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The most significant event was the introduction of the information (IT) Act as early as 2000 and the promulgation of the National Cyber Security Policy by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology in 2013.The Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) was established in 2004 and continues to act. ...Read more >

1 Pages
1.01 MB
U.S. NATIONAL CYBER STRATEGY AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE (DOD) CYBER STRATEGY: AN ANALYSIS  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The Trump Administration released the ‘National Cyber Strategy’ on 20 September 2018. Around the same time, the ‘Defense Department Cyber Strategy 2018’ was also published. In the United States (U.S.), every government after taking over, announces some important policies and or strategy documents. The present administration has already released the ‘National Security Strategy’, the ‘National Defense Strategy’ and the ‘Nuclear Posture Review’. The National Cyber Strategy ...Read more >

20 Pages
1.38 MB
INDIA S NATIONAL CYBER SECURITY STRATEGY: HOW TO GO ABOUT IT  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The exponential growth and rapid adoption of information and communication technologies (ICT) with its associated economics and social opportunities have benefitted billions of people around the world. The Internet has become the backbone of modern businesses, critical services and infrastructure, social networks and the global economy ...Read more >

8 Pages
1.97 MB
CYBER WARGAME AN INDIAN SCENARIO  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Immediately after the first gulf war in the early 1990’s the theories of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) and Information Warfare were being studied all over the world as a new kind of warfare. During that time, a course on Information Warfare was conducted at the National Defense University of USA. The course participants were from senior officers of the armed forces, representatives of Department of Defence and Department of State and policy makers from the government. Rand ...Read more >

7 Pages
247.83 KB
RETURN OF THE HASHISHIN (ASSASSIN) CULT?: WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE ATTACK ON SAUDI OIL FACILITIES  By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Considered to be the most serious kinetic attack on oil facilities in the Gulf since the first Gulf War of 1991, on September 14, 2019 the oil facilities in Saudi Arabia was attacked. The attack struck Abqaiq’s large Aramco oil processing facility considered the largest of its kind in the world run by the Saudi state oil company Aramco and another site at the Khurais oil field. With remarkable precision, the aerial strikes hit more than a dozen oil installations in Khurais and ...Read more >

142 Pages
2.07 MB
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