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Islam
WAHHABISM AND ISLAM IN THE U.S.  

Islam is a fairly new participant at the big table of American religions. The Muslim community only became a significant element in our country’s life in the 1980s.Most born Muslims, as opposed to those who converted a term Muslims avoid,preferring new Muslims had historically been immigrants from Pakistan and India who followed traditional, peaceful, mainstream Islam. ...Read more >

6 Pages
489.54 KB
ISLAMIC EXTREMISM IN EUROPE  

The greatest threat to the United States from al Qaeda, its affiliated groups, or those animated by al Qaeda’s ideology, emanates today from Europe. There are four strands to this argument which will be amplified in my testimony. The first, is that there is little or no evidence of American sleeper cells found in the US since the 9/11 attacks. Secondly, the most significant Islamist terrorist plots in the United States in the past decade have generally not involved sleeper cells, but rather ...Read more >

6 Pages
528.62 KB
CIVIL DEMOCRATIC ISLAM : PARTNERS, RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES  

The United States has three goals in regard to politicized Islam. First, it wants to prevent the spread of extremism and violence. Second, in doing so, it needs to avoid the impression that the United States is opposed to Islam. And third, in the longer run, it must find ways to help address the deeper economic, social,and political causes feeding Islamic radicalism and to encourage a move toward development and ...Read more >

88 Pages
758.83 KB
UNHOLY WAR : TERROR IN THE NAME OF ISLAM AND THE CRISIS OF ISLAM : HOLY WAR AND UNHOLY TERROR  

The horrific attacks of September 11, 2001 ostensibly carried out in the name of Islam focused American attention on militant Islam and raised important questions about the fundamental nature of the world’s second largest religion and the violence carried out in its name. Is Islam, as asserted by President Bush, a religion of peace? Is the violent jihad (a central concept of Islam, which can mean both to strive to lead a good Muslim life in the path of God and to rise up in arms against ...Read more >

15 Pages
562.90 KB
EMOTIONS, POVERTY, OR POLITICS : MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT ISLAMIC MOVEMENTS  

Violent movements in the name of Islam have been catapulted to center stage in U.S. foreign policy concerns. However, before concrete strategies can be formulated to deal with this concern, the nature and dynamics of Islamist mobilization itself must be understood.What motivates an individual to join an Islamist group and possibly use violence? Under what conditions will these groups moderate and when will they radicalize? While our policy choices dealing with the Muslim world and ...Read more >

6 Pages
545.64 KB
THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD  

Without Closely examining Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimeen (the Muslim Brotherhood) founded in Egypt in 1928, it is impossible to try to understand modern Islamic radicalism. Al-Ikhwan was the first of its kind to politicize Islam within the context of the colonial age and the first to put into practice the theories of Salafist thinkers such as Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh. These two Muslim revivalists, who wrote and preached during the beginning of the 20th-century, espoused that Islam ...Read more >

6 Pages
198.21 KB
SAUDI SUPPORT FOR ISLAMIC EXTREMISM IN THE UNITED STATES  

Instead of trying to cleanse the Islamic community from the extremism that exercises disproportionate influence, various Islamic leaders, claiming that they represent the majority of Muslims, have instead sought to portray counterterrorism efforts as part of an orchestrated campaign against Islam. Such a position only serves to protect the radicals and the terrorists who, as they did before 9/11, sought refuge in the unwillingness of American policymakers to distinguish militant Islamic ...Read more >

24 Pages
90.22 KB
MODERNIZATION AND DEMOCRATIZATION IN THE MUSLIM WORLD OBSTACLES AND REMEDIES  

After more than five decades of efforts at modernization, the Muslim world still lags behind not only the advanced Western countries but also a number of East Asian states, such as Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore and China, in every aspect of modernization.Muslim countries also fare badly in many socioeconomic indicators in comparison with the Latin American countries. The Islamic world’s record in terms of establishing and sustaining democratic systems of government is equally ...Read more >

50 Pages
430.78 KB
CHANGING MINDS WINNING PEACE  

The attacks of September 11, 2001, required America to pursue a longterm, comprehensive war on terrorism. Extending military power abroad, practicing vigorous state to state diplomacy, choking off financial resources to our adversaries and improving the defense of the homeland Ñ these steps are all necessary, but not sufficient to the task. Despite our best efforts in these areas, animosity toward the United States has grown to unprecedented levels, making the achievement of our ...Read more >

81 Pages
505.74 KB
ISLAM : SUNNIS AND SHIITES  

The differences between the Sunni and Shiite Islamic sects are rooted in disagreements over the succession to the Prophet Muhammad, who died in 632 AD and over the nature of leadership in the Muslim community. The historic debate centered on whether to award leadership to a qualified, pious individual who would follow the customs of the Prophet or to transmit leadership exclusively through the Prophet’s ...Read more >

6 Pages
214.79 KB
A HUNDRED OSAMAS : ISLAMIST THREATS AND THE FUTURE OF COUNTERINSURGENCY  

The U.S. Government launched Operation ENDURING FREEDOM,Operation IRAQI FREEDOM and the Global War on Terror (GWOT) in response to the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) and in alliance with various nations. Many other nations objected to the U.S. invasion of Iraq on the grounds that Saddam Hussayn’s region did not, in their views, pose a credible Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) threat as was claimed at the time and because they believed that American dismantlement and occupation of Iraq ...Read more >

84 Pages
3.31 MB
EXPLOITING ISLAMIC EXTREMISTS USE OF THE INTERNET  

On November 28, 2006, the Al-Fajr Information Center released the first issue of the Technical Mujahid Magazine.The purpose of the online magazine is to help prevent aggressive acts against Muslims in cyberspace and to assist the mujahid in their efforts.2 A mujahid is a Muslim fighting in a war or involved in any other struggle.The magazine proclaims that the Internet provides a golden opportunity for the mujahid to break the Western media control over ...Read more >

24 Pages
122.91 KB
ISLAM, ISLAMISM AND TERRORISM  

The tragedy of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent conceptualizing of the war on terrorism have presented a very difficult problem to those responsible for framing the strategy.The basic problem has been one of defining the enemy.After four years, this problem still eludes a clear definition although the national leadership has been carefully moving toward a more definitive description.The basic obstacle has been one of clearly describing the enemy without seeming to single out the world’s ...Read more >

8 Pages
239.54 KB
CHOOSING WORDS CAREFULLY : LANGUAGE TO HELP FIGHT ISLAMIC TERRORISM  

This essay discusses the most egregious and dangerous misuses of language regarding Islamic totalitarian terrorists; a comprehensive study would require a book. We begin with the word jihad, which literally means striving and generally occurs as part of the expression jihad fi sabil illah, striving in the path of God. Striving in the path of God is a duty of all ...Read more >

8 Pages
37.38 KB
ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS, MADRASAS : BACKGROUND  

The Arabic word madrasa (plural: madaris) generally has two meanings: (1) in its more common literal and colloquial usage, it simply means school (2) in its secondary meaning, a madrasa is an educational institution offering instruction in Islamic subjects including, but not limited to, the Quran, the sayings (hadith) of the Prophet Muhammad, jurisprudence (fiqh) and law. Historically, madrasas were distinguished as institutions of higher studies and existed in contrast to more ...Read more >

7 Pages
47.55 KB
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