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Myanmar
MYANMAR'S TROUBLED HISTORY: COUPS, MILITARY RULE, AND ETHNIC CONFLICT  By Lindsay Maizland

Myanmar, also known as Burma, has suffered decades of repressive military rule, poverty due to years of isolationist economic policies, and civil war with ethnic minority groups. The transfer to civilian leadership in 2011 spurred hopes of democratic reforms. But the military maintained control over parts of the government, and security forces began a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Rohingya. The military launched a coup in February ...Read more >

9 Pages
362.52 KB
MYANMAR FOREIGN POLICY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES  By Maung Aung Myoe

Regarding the foreign policy of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, article 41 of the 2008 constitution states that ‘the Union practises independent, active and non-aligned foreign policy aimed at world peace and friendly relations with nations and upholds the principles of peaceful co-existence among nations’. In a subsequent article, it is stated that ‘the Union shall not commence aggression against any ...Read more >

22 Pages
643.00 KB
U.S. RESTRICTIONS ON RELATIONS WITH BURMA  By Congressional Research Service

Major changes in Burma’s political situation since 2016 have raised questions among some Members of Congress concerning the appropriateness of U.S. policy toward Burma (Myanmar) in general, and the current restrictions on relations with Burma in particular. During the time Burma was under military rule (1962–2011), restrictions were placed on bilateral relations in an attempt to encourage the Burmese military, or Tatmadaw, to permit the restoration of democracy. ...Read more >

29 Pages
1.15 MB
THE ROHINGYA CRISIS  By Eleanor Albert and Lindsay Maizland

For decades, Rohingya, an ethnic Muslim minority group, in Myanmar, a predominantly Buddhist country, have faced institutionalized discrimination, such as exclusionary citizenship laws. The Myanmar government launched a military campaign in 2017 that forced seven hundred thousand Rohingya to flee. Rights groups suspect the government has committed genocide against the Rohingya, but officials deny the ...Read more >

11 Pages
283.94 KB
MYANMAR IN THE TIME OF COVID-19  By The World Bank

The Covid-19 pandemic has interrupted Myanmar’s economic expansion, and while Myanmar is expected to narrowly escape a recession, helped by a strong start to the fiscal year, policy responses, and the limited disease outbreak, the growth recovery is at great risk. Myanmar’s GDP growth is estimated to drop from 6.8 percent in FY2018/19 to 0.5 percent in FY2019/20. Following strong activity in the first five months of the year, the pandemic and associated containment measures are ...Read more >

83 Pages
4.18 MB
CROSSING THE LINE: GEOPOLITICS AND CRIMINALITY AT THE INDIA–MYANMAR BORDER  By Prem Mahadevan

The remote and isolated north-eastern region of India is a classic example of a forgotten frontier (Figure 1). Lying adjacent to Myanmar, it is an insurgencyridden area with a vibrant smuggling economy that connects South Asia with South East Asia. It is also a zone of military and geopolitical contestation between New Delhi and Beijing. Consisting of seven provinces, the region is only connected to the Indian heartland through an extremely narrow strip of territory: the so-called Siliguri ...Read more >

46 Pages
6.70 MB
MYANMAR: URBAN HOUSING DIAGNOSTIC & COVID-19 RAPID ASSESSMENT  By ELIZABETH RHOADS, THANG SORN POINE, CHO CHO WIN AND HELENE KYED

The challenges of increased urbanization are already evident in Yangon, Myanmar’s largest city. The city’s infrastructure, connectivity, services, and affordable housing stock have not kept pace with even the relatively slow rate of urbanization in Yangon. In developing countries, 90% of urban expansion is through informal settlements or in areas prone to natural disasters like flooding, sea level rise, or cyclones, and Myanmar is no exception. Such precarious living conditions make the ...Read more >

88 Pages
2.23 MB
MYANMAR: REQUESTS FOR DISBURSEMENT UNDER THE RAPID CREDIT FACILITY AND PURCHASE UNDER THE RAPID FINANCING INSTRUMENT—PRESS RELEASE STAFF REPORT AND STATEMENT BY THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR FOR MYANMAR  By International Monetary Fund

In the context of the Requests for Disbursement Under the Rapid Credit Facility and Purchase Under the Rapid Financing Instrument, the following documents have been released and are included in this package: • A Press Release including a statement by the Chair of the Executive Board. • The Staff Report prepared by a staff team of the IMF for the Executive Board’s consideration on June 26, 2020, following discussions that ended on June 1, 2020, ...Read more >

49 Pages
4.00 MB
INDIA-MYANMAR - BILATERAL BRIEF  

India shares a long land border of over 1643 kms with Myanmar as well as a maritime boundary in the Bay of Bengal. Four northeastern states, viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, have a boundary with Myanmar. India shares religious, linguistic and ethnic ties with Myanmar. It is the only ASEAN country adjoining India and, therefore, is a gateway to South East Asia. ...Read more >

5 Pages
172.56 KB
MYANMAR UNLOCKING THE POTENTIAL COUNTRY DIAGNOSTIC STUDY  By August 2014

Myanmar stands at a critical juncture amid a wave of political, social, and economic reforms. Since the return of civilian rule in 2011, the new government has launched impressive ...Read more >

234 Pages
5.48 MB
HARNESSING MYANMARS HYDROPOWER AND NEGOTIATING CONFLICT  By Elliot Brennan & Stefan Dring

Many of Myanmar Rivers are highly suitable for hydroelectric power generation. Many of them already help provide the base load of the country electricity needs. As the country develops it is not ...Read more >

6 Pages
744.19 KB
MYANMAR REGRESSED STALLED OR MOVING FORWARD   By J. Stephen Morrison

The union of Myanmar is in the third year of a historic transition. Like other comparable transitions of a countries emerging from decades of misrule and repression the process is ...Read more >

24 Pages
2.23 MB
INDIAS STRATEGIC INTERESTS IN MYANMAR  

Myanmar is of extreme strategic and economic importance for India. The two nations share a 1,600km land border and a long maritime boundary in the strategically important Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, they are bound by religious, cultural and ethnic linkages and four of Indias politically sensitive Northeastern states share international borders with Myanmar. India has been pursuing friendly relations with its eastern neighbour since the early 1990s with the goal of countering Chinas ...Read more >

4 Pages
141.06 KB
ALTERNATIVE STRATEGIES TOWARDS MYANMAR REVISING INDIAS LOOK EAST POLICY  

It is in New Delhis best interest to secure Myanmar as a permanent trading and strategic partner due to its geographical advantage. So, when faced with the dilemma of whether to support or oppose the first elections in Myanmar in two decades on 7 November 2010, India chose to align with that country and show it solidarity for this first step towards democracy ...Read more >

4 Pages
155.82 KB
TENSION IN THE ROLLING HILLS : BURMESE POPULATION AND BORDER TRADE IN MIZORAM  

In the past two decades, two phenomena have placed Mizo society under strain the inflow of people from Myanmar and border trade. Unfortunately, the authorities passivity in monitoring these issues, has further led to their exacerbation rather than their ...Read more >

24 Pages
381.13 KB
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