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Afghanistan
DEALING WITH THE TALIBAN: INDIA'S STRATEGY IN AFGHANISTAN AFTER U.S. WITHDRAWAL  By Rudra Chaudhuri and Shreyas Shende

An agreement signed between the United States and the Taliban on February 29, 2020, marks a milestone in America’s longest ever war. Accordingly, the majority of U.S. troops are expected to withdraw from Afghanistan by the end of 2021. In turn, and if this agreement is successfully implemented, sections of the Taliban could be expected to play a larger role in Afghan politics. This is hardly desirable for a country like India. Indian assets in Afghanistan have been targeted by the Haqqani ...Read more >

48 Pages
640.54 KB
LEARNING THE RIGHT LESSONS FROM THE AFGHAN WAR  By Anthony H. Cordesman

The U.S. has a poor history of making effective efforts to learn the lessons of its recent wars, and it is already focusing on other strategic issues, and the crises that are following the collapse of Afghanistan. It will be all too easy for U.S. policymakers and the Congress to ignore the need to learn from the preceding twenty years of conflict and to fail to preserve the data and institutions necessary to learn as much from the war and the collapse of the Afghan government and forces ...Read more >

128 Pages
6.57 MB
INSURGENT BUREAUCRACY: HOW THE TALIBAN MAKES POLICY  By Ashley Jackson and Rahmatullah Amiri

The Taliban’s system of shadow governance in Afghanistan and the experiences of civilians now living under Taliban rule are each well documented by both scholars and journalists. The precise policies that guide Taliban governance and the factors that have shaped these rules are little understood, however. This report, which is based on more than a hundred interviews with Taliban fighters and officials as well as with civilians living in areas under Taliban control, provides insights into ...Read more >

44 Pages
1.68 MB
AN AFGHAN TRAGEDY: THE PASHTUNS, THE TALIBAN AND THE STATE  By Anatol Lieven

It is an old cliché that the Pashtun highlands of Afghanistan and Pakistan are highly resistant to state authority, and old masters of ‘the art of not being governed’ (to use James Scott’s phrase).1 Like so many clichés, this has a real basis in historical fact. The old name ‘Yaghistan’ (the land of lawlessness, rebellion or dissent)2 was given to them by the people of the region, not by Western observers. This name, and what it indicates, also ...Read more >

30 Pages
364.30 KB
THE TALIBAN IN AFGHANISTAN  By Lindsay Maizland

The Taliban is a predominantly Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when a U.S.-led invasion toppled the regime for providing refuge to al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden. The Taliban regrouped across the border in Pakistan and has led an insurgency against the U.S.-backed government in Kabul for more than nineteen ...Read more >

10 Pages
447.80 KB
U.S.-TALIBAN PEACE DEAL: WHAT TO KNOW  By Lindsay Maizland

Signed in early 2020, the agreement addresses four issues: reducing violence, withdrawing foreign troops, starting intra-Afghan negotiations, and guaranteeing Afghanistan won’t again become a refuge for terrorists. The agreement is only the first step to ending the more than eighteen-year war that has killed more than 157,000 people and is estimated to have cost the United States $2 ...Read more >

9 Pages
462.95 KB
2021 HIGH-RISK LIST  By Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction

The Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) is publishing the 2021 HighRisk List to alert Members of the 117th Congress and the Secretaries of State and Defense to major areas of the reconstruction effort in Afghanistan at risk of waste, fraud, abuse, mismanagement, or mission failure. Since 2014, SIGAR has developed a high-risk list for each new Congress. This fourth report is issued at a time when peace negotiations between the Afghan government and ...Read more >

84 Pages
5.19 MB
US INTERVENTION IN AFGHANISTAN : JUSTIFYING THE UNJUSTIFIABLE?  By Leoni Connah

This article argues that the USA and its Western allies have misused ‘Just War’ narratives to legitimise an external intervention in Afghanistan and their use of force during the War on Terror. It explores the extent to which such external interventions, military strategies, narratives and justifications by the USA may have contributed to state failure in Afghanistan. As the legitimacy of earlier external interventions is called into question, while the ...Read more >

17 Pages
480.98 KB
WRITING OFF AFGHANISTAN: DOES BIDEN HAVE A CHOICE?  By Center for Strategic and International Studies

The United States has now spent nearly a year reducing its military, diplomatic, and aid presence in Afghanistan. It has never made the full scale of these reductions public, but it has talked about reducing its military presence to 2,500 military personnel by January 2021 and about closing many military facilities. UN and other reporting have also reflected a steady decline in aid ...Read more >

6 Pages
138.34 KB
AFGHANISTAN'S TERRORISM CHALLENGE : THE POLITICAL TRAJECTORIES OF AL-QAEDA, THE AFGHAN TALIBAN, AND THE ISLAMIC STATE  By Asfandyar Mir

Afghanistan remains at the center of U.S. and international counterterrorism concerns. As America prepares to pull out its military forces from the country, policymakers remain divided on how terrorist groups in Afghanistan might challenge the security of the U.S. and the threat they pose to allies and regional countries. Advocates of withdrawal argue that the terrorism threat from Afghanistan is overstated, while opponents say that it remains ...Read more >

28 Pages
2.39 MB
A BRI(DGE) TOO FAR: THE UNFULFILLED PROMISE AND LIMITATIONS OF CHINA'S INVOLVEMENT IN AFGHANISTAN  By VANDA FELBAB-BROWN

China’s focus on and presence in Afghanistan has grown significantly over the past decade. However, the original emphasis on economic relations has been eclipsed by China’s security agenda in Afghanistan, as China seeks to ensure that anti-Chinese militancy does not leak out from Afghanistan and that Uighur militants do not receive support from the Taliban. While China does seek a stable Afghanistan and would prefer a government not dominated by the Taliban, it has made its peace ...Read more >

18 Pages
711.25 KB
AFGHANISTAN SECURITY SITUATION  By European Asylum Support Office

This report was co-drafted by EASO Country of Origin Information (COI) sector and specialists from the COI units and asylum offices listed in the Acknowledgements section. The report aims to provide information on the security situation in Afghanistan, which is relevant for the assessment of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection, and in particular for use in EASO’s country guidance development on Afghanistan. The terms of ...Read more >

449 Pages
14.22 MB
AFGHANISTAN: THE PROSPECTS FOR A REAL PEACE  By Anthony H. Cordesman

Afghanistan is sometimes referred to as the "graveyard of empites." In pratice, it has been the "graveyard of Afghans"- a nation where outside powers have always found it more costly to remain in Afghanistan than their presence there was worth. Ressia - like so many of Afghanistan s past conquerors - has survived and has prospered from leaving. The United States might also follow suit, as it has mever faced a serious strain from its role in Afghanistan and can ...Read more >

174 Pages
5.37 MB
AFGHANISTAN STUDY GROUP FINAL REPORT: A PATHWAY FOR PEACE IN AFGHANISTAN   By Afghanistan Study Group

Afghanistan’s long conflict has entered a new and potentially final phase: a real opportunity to reach a peaceful resolution exists, but the forces of fragmentation remain strong. The United States can play a key role in determining if this opportunity is taken. A responsible and coherent set of U.S. actions could greatly increase the chances of a peaceful resolution to forty years of conflict a rash and rushed approach could increase the chances of a breakdown of order in Afghanistan ...Read more >

88 Pages
3.14 MB
AGREEMENT FOR BRINGING PEACE TO AFGHANISTAN BETWEEN THE ISLAMIC EMIRATE OF AFGHANISTAN WHICH IS NOT RECOGNIZED BY THE UNITED STATES AS A STATE AND IS KNOWN AS THE TALIBAN AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA  

A comprehensive peace agreement is made of four parts: 1. Guarantees and enforcement mechanisms that will prevent the use of the soil of Afghanistan by any group or individual against the security of the United States and its allies. 2. Guarantees, enforcement mechanisms, and announcement of a timeline for the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Afghanistan. ...Read more >

4 Pages
91.30 KB
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