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WATER SECURITY AS PART OF NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY: THREAT- IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIA  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Like oil or data, water is an integral part of the world’s economy. Although about 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is water-covered, the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water which is salt water. Freshwater, most of it is frozen in glaciers, accounts for the rest. That leaves less than 1 per cent of the world’s water available to support human and ecological processes. We withdraw 4.3 trillion cubic meters of freshwater every year from the earth’s water basins. ...Read more >

51 Pages
6.47 MB
CHINA’S CYBER-INFLUENCE OPERATIONS  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The digital era has transformed the way we communicate. Using social media like Facebook and Instagram, and social applications such as WhatsApp and Telegram, one can be in contact with friends and family, share pictures, videos, messages, posts and share our experiences. Social media has become an effective way of influencing human society and behavior, and shaping public opinion. By sharing a post, tweeting an idea, contributing a discussion in a forum and sharing a sentimental picture, ...Read more >

86 Pages
2.52 MB

THE PLA BEYOND BORDERS: CHINESE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN REGIONAL AND GLOBAL CONTEXT  By Joel Wuthnow et al.

The past decade has witnessed a series of “firsts” in China’s demonstrated ability to deploy military units of various sizes and types far from its own borders. In September 2012, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy commissioned its first aircraft carrier, the Liaoning, a ship that made its maiden voyage into the Western Pacific in December 2016.1 In September 2013, a PLA naval aviation H-6 ...Read more >

371 Pages
3.31 MB
AN AFGHAN TRAGEDY: THE PASHTUNS, THE TALIBAN AND THE STATE  By Anatol Lieven

It is an old cliché that the Pashtun highlands of Afghanistan and Pakistan are highly resistant to state authority, and old masters of ‘the art of not being governed’ (to use James Scott’s phrase).1 Like so many clichés, this has a real basis in historical fact. The old name ‘Yaghistan’ (the land of lawlessness, rebellion or dissent)2 was given to them by the people of the region, not by Western observers. This name, and what it indicates, also ...Read more >

30 Pages
364.30 KB
WATER SECURITY AS PART OF NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY: THREAT- IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIA  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Like oil or data, water is an integral part of the world’s economy. Although about 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is water-covered, the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water which is salt water. Freshwater, most of it is frozen in glaciers, accounts for the rest. That leaves less than 1 per cent of the world’s water available to support human and ecological processes. We withdraw 4.3 trillion cubic meters of freshwater every year from the earth’s water basins. ...Read more >

51 Pages
6.47 MB
THECOUNTDOWN TO AN ISRAELI WAR WITH IRAN HAS BEGUN  By John Hannah

A small army of top Israeli national security officials descended on Washington last week for their first in-person consultations with the Biden administration over its intention to return to the Iran nuclear deal. Israel is adamantly opposed to the agreement, arguing that in exchange for a pause in Tehran’s nuclear program, it virtually guarantees that Iran can become a nuclear-weapons threshold state by the time the deal expires in 2030, while immediately funneling billions of dollars ...Read more >

5 Pages
141.51 KB
RUSSIA’S CONDUCT OF WAR: HOW AND WITH WHAT ASSETS  By Timothy Thomas

This product is designed to offer analysts and leaders a summation of some of the most important concepts and theories influencing how and with what assets Russia might conduct war. It is divided into three sections as follows: THE LEADER’S GUIDANCE: The analysis begins with a look at recent guidance from Russia’s Chief of the General Staff, Valery ...Read more >

53 Pages
1.49 MB
RUSSIAN ROBOTICS: A LOOK AT DEFINITIONS, PRINCIPLES, USES, AND OTHER TRENDS  By Timothy Thomas

Robots have been used in combat in one form or another since at least World War II, and they have also seen use in local conflicts of the last century. However, these robotic devices were simpler in form than those of today. Their integration with other devices was simply not possible. Now the paradigm has changed. The current robotization of combat operations involves devices that are powered with digital and artificial intelligence (AI) command and control devices. ...Read more >

46 Pages
1.03 MB
RUSSIAN ELECTRONIC, INFORMATION, NAVIGATION, AND RECONNAISSANCE-STRIKE AND -FIRE OPERATIONS: DEFINITIONS AND USE   By Timothy Thomas

Russia has been investigating a host of strike and fire concepts for at least a few decades, with one of the first reconnaissance-strike discussions documented in 1984. The quotation above indicates that reconnaissance-strike is not the only strike means under consideration in Russia, and that the number has increased over the years. In terms of terminology and context, Russia’s strike and fire forms are different from those of other nations. The forms under discussion in Russia ...Read more >

35 Pages
1.28 MB
OPEN-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF IRAN’S MISSILE AND UAV CAPABILITIES AND PROLIFERATION  By The International Institute for Strategic Studies

Ever since it acquired Scud-B missiles after its cities suffered missile attacks during the 1980–88 Iran–Iraq War, Iran has viewed ballistic missiles as vital to its defence. Lacking a modern air force, Iran sees ballistic missiles, and increasingly land-attack cruise missiles (LACMs) and uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs), as one means of balancing power. The size and scope of Iran’s missile arsenal – the largest and most diverse in the region – reflects the priority Iran ...Read more >

50 Pages
1.14 MB
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RUSSIAN AIRBORNE TROOPS AND THEIR ROLE ON TOMORROW’S BATTLEFIELD  By Jörgen Elfving

During the last several years, the Russian Airborne Troops (Vozdushno-Desantnye Voyska—VDV) have undergone important changes in organization as well as the procurement of equipment—a process that is by no means complete. For the foreseeable future, the VDV is set to expand the number of units and continue to introduce modern combat vehicles like the BMD-4M and BTR-MDM. At the same time, however, the changes represent at least a partial return to Soviet practices with the reintroduction ...Read more >

49 Pages
536.86 KB
NATO S RESPONSE TO HYBRID THREATS  By Guillaume Lasconjarias and Jeffrey A. Larsen

The NATO Defense College fulfils its mission against the backdrop of world events and rising challenges to North Arlantic security. As the Alliance s primary academic institution, the College has made it its business to look beyond the apparent, and to take nothing for granted. The curriculum evolves along with the international security situation as it develops (and sometimes erupts). Those participating in our courses and events are thus faced ...Read more >

372 Pages
1.31 MB
HYBRID WAR AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT  By Jeffrey Bristol

The National Security Strategy (NSS) dictates America’s transition to “Great Power Competition.” While the 2017 NSS fails to define the term and uses it only once, the tone of the document is rife with its essential idea: The United States is no longer the hegemon and must operate in a global milieu of rising nations whose interests only sometimes align with the United States’ own. Within this context, the NSS dedicates itself to “preserv(ing) peace through strength.”[1] In no ...Read more >

9 Pages
387.23 KB
CHINA’S SOFT POWER IN EUROPE  By The European Think-tank Network on China

Based on separate analyses of 17 countries and EU institutions, this report concludes that Chinese soft power in Europe – defined as the ability to influence preferences through attraction or persuasion – has fallen on hard times. – Developing soft power has been a pillar of Chinese foreign policy and remains a stated goal of China’s long-term policy orientation. – We identify three prominent Chinese approaches to developing soft power in Europe: promoting Chinese language and ...Read more >

117 Pages
3.12 MB
CHINA’S RISE AS A GLOBAL SECURITY ACTOR: IMPLICATIONS FOR NATO  By Meia Nouwens, Helena Legarda

‘We recognise that China’s growing influence and international policies present both opportunities and challenges that we need to address together as an Alliance.’1 With these words in the December 2019 London Declaration, NATO leaders made clear that China has become a new strategic point of focus for the Alliance. Despite the careful language, this shift reflects growing concern among NATO members over China’s geopolitical rise and its growing power-projection capabilities, as ...Read more >

21 Pages
4.31 MB
BUILDING A WALL OF DENIAL AGAINST GRAY-ZONE AGGRESSION  By Elisabeth Braw

NATO member states and partners today face national security threats that extend far beyond military aggression. Indeed, they are regularly targeted by nonmilitary means, so-called gray-zone aggression. Because gray-zone aggression can include any measures below the level of war, including illegal ones, it is impossible for the targeted countries to deter every act with the threat of punishment. This means liberal democracies should give more attention to societal resilience. By ...Read more >

25 Pages
669.04 KB
RUSSIAN MILITARY CAPABILITY IN A TEN-YEAR PERSPECTIVE – 2019  By Fredrik Westerlund and Susanne Oxenstierna (eds)

Comparing current Russian military power to that of a decade ago, Russia has clearly made substantial progress in transforming its military into an efficient fighting force. Observing this achievement, it is relevant to ask: What military capability will Russia possess in another ten years? This report provides a forecast of Russian military capability towards 2029. It is based on analyses of the Armed Forces and their fighting power, and of political and economic factors that affect ...Read more >

148 Pages
3.26 MB