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GALWAN AND AFTER  By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

China and India are heirs to the two oldest civilisations of the world. China and India are the two largest human populated states in the world. Together they have 38.1% of the world s population. China and India have the third and seventh largest landmass of the world. On GDP (PPP) basis, China and India with 27.31 and 11.2 trillion dollars are the world s two largest economies. China and India have the two largest armies of the world. Their armed forces are strong in all domains of ...Read more >

45 Pages
2.76 MB

CHINA’S NUCLEAR AND MISSILE CAPABILITIES: AN OVERVIEW  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Since China first conducted a nuclear weapon test in 1964, its nuclear doctrine has remained unchanged and is underpinned by two principles: a minimum deterrent doctrine and a No First Use (NFU) policy. China’s 2019 defence white paper states, “China is always committed to a nuclear policy of NFU of nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances, and not using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclearweapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones ...Read more >

82 Pages
5.35 MB
KEY TECHNOLOGIES AND THE REVOLUTION OF SMALL, SMART, AND CHEAP IN THE FUTURE OF WARFARE  By By T. X. Hammes

The U.S. Civil War demonstrated the impact of the Industrial Revolution on warfare. The advent of mass production, railroads, telegraphs, and steam warships meant mass became a dominant, if not the dominant, element on the battlefield. World War I reinforced this fact. Even with the advent of maneuver warfare, World War II remained largely a competition of mass. In the 1980s, American leaders turned to precision weapons to defeat the Warsaw Pact’s mass.1 Thankfully, we never found out ...Read more >

17 Pages
436.87 KB
CHINA’S SYSTEM FACE TO FACE  By by the China Aerospace Studies Institute

The Yangzi and Yellow Rivers race on without ceasing. In our vast land, time passes on. During 5,000 years, 180 years, 100 years, 70 years, 40 years, 8 years…as the wheel of time rolls forward, these points in history tell the story of the Chinese people’s vicissitudes in life and the glory of their ordeal. General Secretary Xi Jinping, from a deep historical perspective, has clearly noted that, “the socialist state and legal systems with Chinese characteristics has been formed over a ...Read more >

196 Pages
1.19 MB
HOW CHINA LENDS A RARE LOOK INTO 100 DEBT CONTRACTS WITH FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS  By Anna Gelpern, Sebastian Horn, Scott Morris, Brad Parks, and Christoph Trebesch

The Chinese government and its state-owned banks have lent record amounts to governments in lowand middle-income countries since the early 2000s, making China the world’s largest official creditor. Although several recent studies examine the economics of Chinese lending, we still lack basic facts about how China and its state-owned entities lend—in particular, how the loan contracts are written and what terms and conditions they contain. 1 Neither Chinese creditors nor their sovereign ...Read more >

85 Pages
1.54 MB
LIMITED WAR AND NUCLEAR DETERRENCE PART I AND II   By Major General PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

On 15 June 2020, in a brutal, savage skirmish,the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) used fists, rocks, rods, baton, spikes, knuckle-dusters, nail-studded clubs and wooden clubs wrapped in barbed wire at a post at Galwan on the Indian side of Line of Actual Control(LAC) in Ladakh sector at an altitude of 4,250 meters. India lost a Commanding Officer of an infantry battalion and 19 other ranks. China did not divulge its casualty figures. There is a famous saying that no two nuclear-powered ...Read more >

30 Pages
904.35 KB
DEFINING CHINA’S INTELLIGENTIZED WARFARE AND ROLE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Marshal NV Ograkov, Chief of Staff of the Soviet Army in late 1970s-early 1980s gave out the theory of Military Technical Revolution (MTR). In the wake of overwhelming victory of coalition forces in Operation Desert Storm, net assessment specialists like Andrew Marshal came out with the term Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) which basically evolved from earlier term MTR used by Soviet Military ...Read more >

29 Pages
657.48 KB
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN ARMED FORCES: AN ANALYSIS   By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

Today is the age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The current period of rapid, simultaneous and systemic transformations driven by advances in science is reshaping industries, blurring geographical boundaries, challenging existing regulatory frameworks and even redefining what it means to be human. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the software engine that drives the Fourth Industrial Revolution. AI is creating targeted marketing, safer travel through self-driving cars, smarter weapons ...Read more >

17 Pages
120.80 KB
2+2 SUMMIT MEETING AND BEYOND  By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

US Secretary of Defence, James Mattis and Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, accompanied by Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Gen. Joseph Dunford, met with India’s Foreign Minister, Sushma Swaraj and Defence Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman, at New Delhi on September 6, 2018, in what was dubbed the “two plus two” summit. Three months have passed since that meeting. The ongoing trade war between the USA and China and recent development in Quad have critical bearing on the ...Read more >

7 Pages
406.81 KB
QUAD AND INDIA’S BALANCING ACT   By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The Quad is a mechanism which facilitates dialogue between four major democracies within the Indo-Pacific region, Australia, Japan, India, and the US, on issues of regional security. The Quad believes in principles of openness, freedom of movement, and respect for the rules-based international order. Quad is a dialogue mechanism, Indo-Pacific is a concept. Quad does not define Indo-Pacific. Quad is not an ...Read more >

7 Pages
511.81 KB
PULWAMA AND AFTER   By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

At least 44 personnel of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) were killed and 70 injured when a Maruti Eeco car laden with explosives rammed into a CRPF bus—part of a massive convoy—in Awantipora town of Pulwama District in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) on 14 February, in one of the deadliest terror attacks yet on government forces in J&K. The incident took place at Lethpora, about 30 km from Srinagar on the Jammu-Srinagar highway around 3.15 pm. The scene of the attack is not very far ...Read more >

3 Pages
264.59 KB
THE AFGHANISTAN CONUNDRUM  By Maj Gen P K Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The location of Afghanistan is geostrategically critical. It is a land bridge that links China, Central Asia, South Asia and the Middle East. Geo-politically, Afghanistan is located conveniently close to “the soft underbelly” of Russia and China and its neighbor Iran. Will the Americans leave this geo-strategically important location? However the country is constantly at war for several decades. For the country to prosper Afghanistan must have some semblance of peace. For ending the 17 ...Read more >

34 Pages
1.39 MB
5G, HUAWEI AND INDIA  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

The ability to create and use new technologies is the source of economic strength and military security. Technology and the capacity to create new technologies are the basis of information age power. 5G as the cornerstone of a new digital environment is the focal point for the new competition. China’s success in creating globally competitive tele-communications firms has led the Chinese government’s desire to seize leadership in next generation Information Technology (IT). China is ...Read more >

19 Pages
1.49 MB
UNDERSTANDING RMA AND MILITARY TRANSFORMATION   By Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)

Every few years the U.S. defense community latches on to a new term that influences the efforts of the armed services, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Staff, and the various agencies, labs, think tanks and others responsible for building and maintaining the U.S. military enterprise. Words move money. Every few years, often at the beginning of an administration, a new buzzword emerges: “revolution in military affairs,” “transformation,” “third offset,” or even ...Read more >

54 Pages
4.23 MB
UNDERSTANDING NON CONTACT WARFARE DIMENSIONS & DOMAINS   By Maj Gen P K Mallick,VSM (Retd)

“Warfare which involves the integrated application of all national capabilities, with technology playing a major role to degrade, disrupt or destroy systems/ targets, while ensuring minimum physical contact of own ...Read more >

69 Pages
5.50 MB
CHINA’S DEFENCE WHITE PAPER – AN ANALYSIS  By Maj Gen PK Mallick, VSM (Retd)

China published a white paper on July 24 this year Titled ‘China’s National Defence in the New Era’. It aims to help the international community understand China’s national defence strategies under President Xi Jinping. This explains the practice, purposes and importance of China’s attempts to build a fortified national defense and a strong military. Some nation states publish their National Security Strategy and National Defence Strategy from time to time generally coinciding ...Read more >

20 Pages
1.39 MB